Pyrolysis of methane, wood, oil, plastic, Fast ablative pyrolysis and other types of pyrolysis
Under the concept of pyrolysis of waste mean heat treatment of garbage without oxygen, in which it decomposes into elementary substances and releases useful energy. This method of disposal is more expensive than conventional incineration. But it is considered safer, as the amount of emissions of harmful impurities into the atmosphere is much smaller.
High-temperature and low-temperature pyrolysis
The amount of substances released during pyrolysis depends on the conditions under which the treatment is carried out in Mobile pyrolysis plant . And the main criterion here is the temperature.
Depending on the heating level MSW pyrolysis can be:
Low temperature-heating 450-900 degrees. At such temperatures, the gas yield is less, and the various substances more. Moreover, the higher the heat in the furnace, the higher the level of gas increases, and resins and oils respectively decreases;
High temperature-heating above 900 degrees. In this case, a minimum amount of solid waste is obtained, and the gas level is maximum.
Pyrolysis of oil
This process makes it possible to obtain aromatic and unsaturated hydrocarbons from crude oil. For example, we are talking about benzene and toluene. Heat treatment takes place at 700-1000 degrees. These temperatures are sufficient to conduct pyrolysis of hydrocarbons and decompose it into separate fractions.
In addition, it is a great way to recycle in the event that there was an oil spill. First, you can quickly remove all hazardous waste. Secondly, the process is absolutely safe from the point of view of ecology. And thirdly, when heated, substances and energy are released, which are then used in the oil industry.
Pyrolysis of wood
Heat treatment of wood is one of the first processes that was used in industry. In the XII century with the help of pyrolysis pine resin was obtained, which was used for impregnation of ropes and ships. And when began to develop metallurgy (XIX century), on the basis of dry pyrolysis began to receive charcoal.
Nowadays pyrolysis of wood is needed to produce the following components:
liquid pyrolysis products (50-55%);
gaseous substances (20-25%).
This pyrolysis process consists of the following stages: cutting of raw materials into pieces, drying, heat treatment itself, cooling and condensation of vapors. It is noteworthy that this material does not require particularly high temperatures. As a rule, pyrolysis takes place at 200-450 degrees.
Wood during heat treatment is highlighted another element – calcium acetate. It is popularly called "wood-burnt salt". By itself, it has no industrial application. But if you conduct pyrolysis of calcium acetate, then an additional amount of energy will be released.