Nazism and Christianity are incompatible
The book of well-known historian and sociologist A.A. Galkin “German fascism” – one of the most significant studies of German fascism. The author examines a wide range of problems associated with the genesis, sociology, economics, politics and ideology of fascism. Analyzed public-political practice and a specific mechanism of power created by fascism. Particular attention is paid to the social base of fascism.
Released for the first time in 1967, the book has stood the test of time and remains a major textbook on the history of German fascism.
The value of this book is that it was published in the Soviet Union – a country of victorious atheism, where any bias in favor of religion and the church has been excluded. Author ended the World War II with the rank of captain of the Guards. Here is an excerpt from the book concerning the relationship of religion and Nazism.
“The religious aspect of Nazi ideology has undergone a similar transformation. As the official canons of Christianity contradicts the fundamental ideological principles of National Socialism, the Nazi Party theoreticians at first occupied the front against the church.
The National Socialist literature has launched a campaign against religion and the church.
“Religion of any kind, – wrote the Nazi theorist, Rector of the University of Goethe in Frankfurt Ernst Krieck – originates from Asia. Religion is alien to us, by its nature and meaning. . . The nature and objectives of the Germans corresponds to a living faith in God and destiny. . . Faith strengthens the will and power, religion destroys the will and strength; religion is a vital foreign to our race. Faith, will, strength – health factors. Religion, with its miracles, the other world, and redemption – the cause of the disease. “
“Christianity – claimed the Nazi Professor Bergmann, head of the so-called German movement of believers – was not only Bolshevism in matters of property,of nationality and fatherland, in all its forms of relationship to the world. This is the most anti-human of all religions Bolshevize primarily the human body, which strongly raped by ascetic Christian spirit, seeking to quickly get rid of the body shell as the unnecessary things. “
The hostility to the Christian religion was typical for the personal views of many Nazi leaders. A well-known anti-church direction of Rosenberg sensational book “The Myth of the XX century”. Close to Rosenberg was Bormann that concerned the relationship to the church.
The practice, however, quickly revealed that the anti-Christian stream in Nazi ideology weakens rather than strengthens its impact on the general public. However, among a certain segment of the German population, have broken with religion, and especially among young people, this side of the Nazi doctrine has caused some sympathy. In general, the declaration of war on Christianity was not approved for various reasons neither the ruling circles, particularly the big bourgeoisie that saw in religion an important means of ideological influence on the masses, nor the petty bourgeoisie of the city, who did not want to break with the Church, neither traditionally religious peasantry. Anti-Christian position hampered the Nazis conduct the policy of alliance with other right-wing forces and thus coming to power.
This prompted the Nazi party leadership mute anti-Christian propaganda before the 1933 as not meeting the views of the social forces whose interests are represented by the Nazis. After the conclusion of July 20, 1933 concordat with the Vatican, this trend began to appear more pronounced.
At one time the National Socialists tried to reform the Protestant church, making it “the spokesman of” the ideas of National Socialism. Implementation of the plan easier by the fact that among the representatives of the clergy, both Catholic and Protestant especially, dominated a positive attitude to the Hitler regime.
For this purpose, it was used to stand out from the Protestant Church religious movement “German Christians” .First head of this movement Bishop Hozenfelder gave him the explicit direction of the National Socialist (denial of the Old Testament, the recognition of the so-called Aryan Paragraph, and so on. D.).
Ultimately, however, the experiment with the creation of the Nazi Church did not bring success. The Protestant church, in which were not only pro-Nazi, but also anti-Nazi forces, in general, did not follow the National Socialists, and the “German Christians” were isolated.
After that, the far-reaching plans for the reorganization of the Church were set aside. Bormann, at first, having the idea to abolish the teaching of religion in school and replace the 10 commandments of the Church with the new Nazi precepts (courage, purity of blood, and so on. D.), categorically rejected the advanced Minister cults proposal for a radical reform of the church under the auspices of the National Socialist state, referring to the the possibility of unrest and increased strife in the country.
Hitler in his government statement of 28 March 1933 considered it necessary to specifically emphasize:
“The national government sees in both Christian denominations most important factor in the existence of our nation” .
Although hostile to Christianity in the line of ideological work has been preserved, it weakened further. Rosenberg book “The Myth of the XX century” was declared the expression of the author’s personal point of view. Many National Socialist leaders, despite the dissatisfaction of some of his followers began to emphasize their commitment to Christian rites.
Under these conditions, the union between the National Socialist state and the church leaders of both faiths was concluded. In exchange for the promise of the NSDAP did not interfere in the internal affairs of the church and its parishioners, clergy leadership ensuredpolitical and ideological support for Nazism. In response to the abovementioned assurances of Hitler, chairman of the Catholic Center Party prelate Kaas, speaking in the Reichstag, declared:
“In the face of profound distress, which is currently experiencing the people and the state. . . We extend our hand to all of the German Center Party, including our former enemies, to ensure the implementation of the national cause recovery. ” (Mark in the record “. Loud applause, including from the National Socialists Applauds Chancellor Hitler” )
The fraction of the Center Party in Cologne, which met under the chairmanship of Adenauer, adopted shortly before its dissolution, the following resolution:
“Approved, successful progress of the national revolution, the government should not be in danger, otherwise it would be difficult to imagine the consequences of this. We welcome the suppression of Marxism “
The bourgeois publicist E. Bekenferde analyzing in the 60s in catholic magazine “Hochland” the position of the Catholic clergy, forced to come to not very pleasant for themselves conclusion:
“The German Catholic bishops received their official authoritative advice and guidance, which would be better to did not carry out. “
“They (the Leading figures of the political Catholicism – AG) have tried to defend the principles of the new order, to state more or less fundamental unity of views of Catholics and the National Socialists and to evaluate the appearance of the Nazi Reich, as a major and positive turn.”
At the same time, the discrepancy between Nazi ideology and Christianity has created the objective conditions for the conversion of the latter in the form of loyalty to express opposition to the Nazi regime and the fascist ideology. For many believers, the incompatibility of the Nazi doctrine with Christian morality has become a catalyst in speeding up their departure from National Socialism and even resistance to it. In turn, the Nazi Party attempted to do away with such sentiments inevitably took character of religious persecution.
All this contributed to the unity of the anti-fascist forces, and especially the convergence of anti-Nazis believers and anti-fascists atheists. This convergence in some cases, has taken very specific forms, as, incidentally, witnessed the process, organized by the Nazi regime against the Catholic chaplain Josef Rossannta and other Catholic priests and functionaries (April 1937). The scale of the repression associated with this process can be judged on the basis of reports of Reich Security Main Office, dated February 1936, according to which 54 persons were arrested in the same only in the case Rossannta Düsseldorf, including eight chaplains, general chairman of the Catholic Youth League and others. All of them were charged with the secret cooperation with the Communists.
“It would be a major mistake – wrote at the time underground “Red Flag “, – if the proletarian anti-fascists do not understand the meaning of the religious activities of Catholics and Protestants for the expansion of the liberation struggle, the Popular Front for the movement against Hitler.”
Since in this case, particular qualities of the ideology of National Socialism did not contributed to the unification of the ruling classes, as in many other cases, but to separation of them, in the last stages of the Nazi domination, anti-Christian side of the Nazi ideology was virtually “put on ice”. It is significant in this regard that other national forms of fascism (particularly Spanish, Portuguese) not only have not adopted anti-Christian tenets of the Nazi Party, but, on the contrary, tried, with the active assistance of the clergy to construct a model of clerical fascism.